Independent Expert Group

Selected from nominations submitted to the Stakeholder Group, the Independent Expert Group is responsible for the Global Nutrition Report’s data, analysis and conclusions, and is accountable for the quality and independence of its content.

Anushree Shiroor, Concern Worldwide (UK)

Anushree is the Senior Policy Officer for Nutrition at Concern Worldwide (UK), an international development charity working to strengthen efforts contributing to achieving a world free from hunger and poverty, with a focus on the world's poorest and most vulnerable. Her focus lies in mobilising greater political will, improved and accountable investments, and more robust policies and programmes in countries with the greatest burden of malnutrition, which includes increasingly fragile and conflict settings. To this end she works closely with coalitions such as the International Coalition for Advocacy on Nutrition (ICAN), and the Scaling Up Nutrition Civil Society Network to engage with parliamentarians, donors, and other decision makers, and ensure a stronger, unrestrained, and unified civil society voice to shape positively the global development agenda for nutrition. Previously the nutrition policy advocacy lead for RESULTS UK, Anushree also brings in experience of nutrition programme implementation with UNICEF in India, and of research on maternal and child health and nutrition in Asia and Africa. She is a member of the steering group for the SUN Civil Society Network, where she contributes to supporting civil society capacity in-country for meaningful change at the local and national levels, and linking in-country voices to global advocacy and momentum for nutrition. Anushree holds masters' degrees in nutrition and global health from the Universities of Delhi and Oxford respectively.

View Anushree Shiroor's Declaration of Interests

John McArthur, Brookings Institution and UN Foundation

John W. McArthur is a senior fellow with the Brookings Institution’s Global Economy and Development program. He is also senior advisor on sustainable development to the UN Foundation and board governor with the International Development Research Centre Canada. He has previously been the CEO of Millennium Promise; a Senior Fellow with the Hong Kong-based Fung Global Institute; a faculty member at Columbia's School of International and Public Affairs; and Policy Director at the Earth Institute. From 2002 to 2006 he served as Manager and then Deputy Director of the UN Millennium Project. Prior to that he was a Research Fellow at the Harvard Center for International Development, where he co-authored the Global Competitiveness Report and supported the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. John co-chaired the International Commission on Education for Sustainable Development Practice and co-founded the global network of Masters in Development Practice degree programs. He has also chaired Global Agenda Councils for the World Economic Forum. He completed a DPhil (PhD) and MPhil in Economics at Oxford University (Rhodes Scholar); an MPP at Harvard's Kennedy School; and a BA (Hon) at University of British Columbia.

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Jorge Fonseca, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Jorge M. Fonseca currently serves as Food Systems Programme Adviser with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). In this capacity he is responsible for providing leadership to the global work on city-linked food systems under the framework of the corporate's strategic programmes. Before that he served for FAO as Economic and Food Systems Analysis Officer, and as Agro-industry officer where he managed various food sector development projects in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.  Prior to joining FAO he was an Associate Professor at The University of Arizona, where he led the state's postharvest and food safety research and extension program.  He has acted as an international expert for diverse development country programs including several commissioned by the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN)/Food Drug Administration, US-Agency of International Development, and the Korea National Institute of Science and Technology. He has been hired by the private sector to consult for multiple enterprises in nine different countries. He was a visiting faculty member at the University of Campinas in Brazil and has been the instructor of food system courses in different universities in Latin America and Italy. He also co-founded two firms servicing the food industry in the United States and Costa Rica.

Jorge received his PhD in Food Technology from Clemson University, South Carolina. He completed three masters programs, including an MSc in Horticulture from Clemson, Masters degree in Business Administration from the University of Costa Rica and National University of San Diego, California and a Masters in International Food Governance from the Open University of Catalonia.  He has authored over 150 scientific and trade-technical publications about post-production food systems, with one publication receiving a US national press award; co-authored a chapter of the International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD ), one book and nine book chapters.

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Jessica Fanzo, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Johns Hopkins University (GNR co-chair)

Jessica Fanzo PhD serves as the Senior Nutrition and Food Systems Officer in the Nutrition and Food Systems Division (ESN) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). While at the UN, Jessica is taking a leave of absence from her Bloomberg Distinguished Associate Professorship of Global Food and Agriculture Policy and Ethics at the Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Bloomberg School of Public Health, and the Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at the Johns Hopkins University. She also serves as the Director of the Global Food Ethics and Policy Program at Johns Hopkins University. She is the Co-Chair of the Global Nutrition Report and was the team leader for the UN High Level Panel of Experts report on Food Systems and Nutrition. Before joining Johns Hopkins, Jessica was an Assistant Professor of Nutrition at the Institute of Human Nutrition and Department of Pediatrics and the Senior Advisor of Nutrition Policy at the Earth Institute at Columbia University. Prior to her academic career, Jessica held positions on the United Nations World Food Programme, at Bioversity International, and the Millennium Development Goal Centre at the World Agroforestry Center in Kenya. Her area of expertise is on the linkages between agriculture, nutrition, health and the environment in the context of sustainable and equitable diets and livelihoods. She was the first laureate of the Carasso Foundation's Sustainable Diets Prize in 2012 for her work on sustainable food and diets for long-term human health. Jessica has a PhD in Nutrition from University of Arizona.

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Dominic Schofield, Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition

Dominic Schofield is President of Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) Canada and Senior Technical Advisor for Policy and Programs at the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN).

Dominic's professional career spans more than 25 years in the field of international development serving in leadership positions with the private and not-for-profit sectors, and the United Nations. Assignments have taken him to Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and South and Southeast Asia. Throughout his career, Dominic has sought to bring good development practice together with good business practice.

At positions based in Geneva, New York, Ottawa and Washington DC, his work in public health for more than a decade has focused on addressing malnutrition in developing countries through global initiatives and multi-sectoral alliances that combine the strengths of government, private sector, and civil society. While at GAIN, Dominic established and led innovative finance partnerships with the Acumen Fund, International Finance Corporation and LGT Venture Philanthropies in the areas of Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition. In his current role at GAIN, Dominic continues to advise governments and businesses on evidence-based policies and blended finance approaches that take innovations with social impact to scale.

Prior to joining GAIN, Dominic served as Nutrition Specialist at UNICEF in New York, and as Partnership and Business Development Manager at the Micronutrient Initiative (MI) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in Ottawa, and later led these efforts at IDRC's regional office for Southern Africa, based in Johannesburg. Previously, Dominic led business partnership and social impact investment in South Africa through an initiative of the Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters (CME) that was recognized as a key mechanism of the Government of Canada's Africa Trade Strategy. As a management consultant at the beginning of his career, Dominic led complex projects in technology transfer and skills development, and has assisted development organisations in strategic planning, resource mobilisation and strengthening private sector participation and investment in sustainable development.

With a BA in Economic Geography from McGill University and MBA from the University of Ottawa, Dominic is a Professional Affiliate in the College of Pharmacy and Nutrition at the University of Saskatchewan, and has lectured about the multiple burdens of malnutrition and social impact investment in public health at Colombia University, University of California Davis, McGill University and the University of Saskatchewan. Dominic currently advises the FTSE for Good Index Policy Committee, the Access to Nutrition Index and serves on several global technical expert committees related to nutrition and public health. He also serves as the Canadian representative of OneGoal and on the Steering Committee of the Global Goals World CupX, FIFA affiliated initiatives mobilising youth and adolescent girls for improved nutrition through the power of sport.

View Dominic Schofield's Declaration of Interests

Zulfiqar Bhutta, The Hospital for Sick Children and Aga Kahn University

Dr Zulfiqar A Bhutta is the Inaugural Robert Harding Chair in Global Child Health at the Hospital for Sick Children, Co-Director and Director of Research at the SickKids Centre for Global Child Health, and the Founding Director of the Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health at Aga Khan University. He also holds adjunct professorships at several leading Universities including Johns Hopkins University, Tufts University, Boston University, and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Dr Bhutta is a Distinguished National Professor of the Government of Pakistan, co-Chair of the Global Countdown for 2015 and 2030 Initiatives, co-Chair of the Maternal and Child Health oversight committee of World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region, and Chairman of The Coalition of Centres in Global Child Health. He is a former President of the Commonwealth Association of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition and the Federation of Asia-Oceania Perinatal Societies and, as the current President of the International Pediatric Association, is a leading voice for health professionals supporting integrated maternal, newborn and child health globally.

Dr Bhutta leads large research groups based in Toronto, Karachi and Nairobi with a special interest in research synthesis, scaling up evidence-based interventions in community settings, and implementation of reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health interventions in the context of humanitarian settings. In particular, his work with community health workers and outreach services has influenced integrated maternal and newborn outreach programs for marginalised populations all over the world. His group's work with WHO and the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH) in developing consensus-based essential interventions for women, children and adolescents is guiding global policy.

Professor Bhutta obtained his MBBS from the University of Peshawar and his PhD from the Karolinska Institute. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Pakistan Academy of Sciences.

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Phillip Baker, Deakin University

Dr Phillip Baker is an Alfred Deakin Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia. His research focuses on the politics of food and nutrition policy, globalisation and food systems change, and policies to prevent undernutrition, overweight/obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases in Australia and internationally. His recent work has focused on understanding three topics: i) ‘political commitment' for addressing malnutrition in all its forms – what drives it, how and under what circumstances; ii) the role of ultra-processed foods in the nutrition transition; and iii) the inter-linkages between economic globalisation (in particular trade liberalisation and the growth of transnational food corporations), food systems change and population nutrition. Dr Baker is currently a Fellow of the Lancet Commission on Obesity. He is a member of the Public Health Association of Australia, the Nutrition Society of Australia and the World Public Health Nutrition Association.

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Obey Assery, Government of Tanzania

Obey Assery is an experienced trained economist. For the past six years, he has been a Director of Coordination of Government Business at the Prime Minster's Office in Tanzania. He is responsible for ensuring that government activities are implemented in a coherent manner by convening the government, development partners (bi- lateral, multilateral and UN agencies), prrivate sector and civil society organisations (CSOs). Prior to that post, Obey served as the Economic Advisor to three Prime Ministers of the United Republic of Tanzania.

Obey has been coordinating food security and nutrition initiatives as a SUN focal person by ensuring that issues of food security and nutrition are well articulated in policies and strategies. Obey chairs the Partnership Accountability Committee which serves as stakeholder's platform for coordinating the G8 initiative on Food Security and Nutrition. The platform consists of government, development partners, private sector and CSOs. Mr Assery is a seasoned speaker on food security and nutrition in international fora. He is also an experience speaker in many international fora on various issues, in particular in areas of nutrition, food security and nutrition. Recently, he coordinated the formulation of the National Multisectoral Nutrition Action Plan (NMNAP), and the National Social Protection Framework and he continues to coordinate various stakeholders to ensure that nutrition and social protection subsectors are clearly interlinked.

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Mariachiara Di Cesare, Middlesex University

Mariachiara Di Cesare is Senior Lecturer in Public Health at Middlesex University and Honorary Research Fellow at Imperial College London. Chiara has a Master's degree in Statistics, Demography, and Social Sciences and a PhD in Demography from the University of Rome ‘La Sapienza'. Chiara is a scientist with interdisciplinary work experience in both academia and international organisations (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean).

Chiara's research in population health uses and integrates concepts, data and methods from demography, epidemiology, statistics, and social science. Her work has focused on the epidemiology and public health of obesity and undernutrition, the role of early nutrition on child development, whether, and how much, changes in metabolic risk factors have contributed to the decline in cardiovascular mortality, and the extent to which inequalities in non‐communicable diseases mortality and associated risk factors vary within and between countries.

Chiara is currently working on the dynamics of social inequalities in undernutrition and adiposity and her research is supported by the Academy of Medical Sciences Springboard award. Results of Chiara's recent research on global trends in obesity are currently used by the World Health Organization (WHO) (Global Health Observatory) as official estimates and have been used to write several WHO/UN reports and have received extended global media coverage to the extent that two of her papers have ranked at #14 in 2016 and #7 in 2017 on Altmetric's public discussion scale. Chiara is a member of the NCD Risk Factors Collaboration and is part of the World Heart Federation Emerging Leader 2018 cohort.

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Lorena Allemandi, Fundacion InterAmericana del Corazón

Lorena Allemandi has been working in policy-oriented research to reduce non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors (tobacco control, obesity and hypertension) in Argentina for nine years. She was first involved in research and advocacy work focused on tobacco control that resulted in a number of publications and actions such as the promotion of local smokefree policies and the elaboration of the first shadow report on the implementation of FCTC policies in Latin America and the Caribbean, among other publications. Her interest has always been the link between scientific knowledge and the promotion of public health policies. Lorena received specific training in research methodology and public health policies at the University of Buenos Aires's School of Public Health.

Most of the work performed at the Fundacion InterAmericana del Corazón Argentina, where she is Director of the Food Policy Department, is policy-oriented and conducted by professionals from different fields of expertise; this has given her the opportunity to participate in several studies and advocacy strategies on 100% smokefree environments, tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship, sodium and trans-fatty acid policies, and other childhood obesity-related policies in Argentina. Lorena is currently a member of the Argentinean Smokefree Coalition and the National Coalition for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity in Argentina, WASH (World Awareness Salt and Health) coalition and CLASS (Latin American Healthy Coalition).

Being part of the Global Nutrition Report Independent Expert Group provides a great opportunity to exchange and share data, knowledge and advocacy experiences in the promotion of healthy food environments, and identify the research gaps to achieving such goals.

View Lorena Allemandi's Declaration of Interests

Laurence Grummer-Strawn, World Health Organization

Laurence Grummer-Strawn, MPA, MA, PhD, is the Coordinator of Infant and Young Child Feeding at the World Health Organization (WHO). Until December 2014, he served as Chief of the Nutrition Branch at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Having earned his PhD from Princeton University, he worked at CDC for over 23 years, in the areas of reproductive health and nutrition. He is an epidemiologist who has published over 150 scientific publications. He is recognised internationally for his work on vitamin and mineral deficiencies, breastfeeding policy, and development of both the CDC and the WHO Growth Charts.

Dr Grummer-Strawn has chaired the Iodine Global Network, co-chaired the National Fruit and Vegetable Alliance, and served on the Executive Management Team of the Flour Fortification Initiative. He was the scientific editor of the US Surgeon General's Call to Action on Breastfeeding. He created the CDC Guide to Breastfeeding Interventions, CDC's collection of breastfeeding data in the National Immunization Survey, the State Breastfeeding Report Card, the CDC survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC). At WHO, Dr Grummer-Strawn leads the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, the Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, and the Breastfeeding Advocacy Initiative.

View Laurence Grummer-Strawn's Declaration of Interests

Kevin Chen, International Food Policy Research Institute

Dr Kevin Chen is Senior Research Fellow and Head of East Asia and Central Asia Office at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). He is co-editor of China Agricultural Economic Review and also managing editor of the journal International Food and Agribusiness Management Review. He was an associate professor at the Department of Resource Economics and Sociology at the University of Alberta from 1995–2004. He also served as an editor for the Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics in 2003–2004. His interests focus on agri-food value chain development, public policies on poverty, modeling agricultural markets, and South–South cooperation on agriculture.

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Jane Battersby, University of Cape Town

Jane Battersby is a Senior Researcher at the African Centre for Cities, where she heads up the Centre's food cluster. She has worked on issues such as urban food systems, food systems transformation, and urban food governance in Africa since 2008. This was first as part of the African Food Security Urban Network (AFSUN) and more recently as the Research Coordinator of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)/UK's Department for International Development (DFID)-funded Consuming Urban Poverty project and PI of the IDRC-funded Nourishing Spaces Project. Her work has both theoretical and applied components.

She has worked in a range of consultancy and advisory roles for international agencies, and local and national governments. In addition to her academic and policy work, she has an interest in communication of research and participatory approaches to knowledge generation. She is therefore frequently involved in public participation processes and media engagements. Jane is currently the Premio Daniel Carasso, an award granted to acknowledge outstanding scientific research into sustainable food systems and diets for long-term health. Jane holds a PhD in Geography from Oxford University, a Masters from the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and a BSc(Hons) from King's College, London.

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Corinna Hawkes, City University, London (GNR co-chair)

Corinna Hawkes is a specialist in food policy and food systems approaches to addressing obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases. She has worked at the World Health Organization, the International Food Policy Research Institute, the School of Public Health at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and as Head of Policy and Public Affairs at the World Cancer Research Fund International. She is an Honorary Research Fellow at the Centre for Food Policy, City University, London, and serves as an advisor at the Leverhulme Center for Integrative Research into Agriculture and Health. She has a PhD from Kings College, University of London, UK

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Emorn Udomkesmalee, Mahidol University (GNR co-chair)

Dr Udomkesmalee is the Senior Advisor and Former Director of the Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Thailand. She currently holds a position as Adjunct Associate Professor in the Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University. She received her PhD in Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA in 1985. Her post-doctoral training was at the Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA (1987).

Dr Udomkesmalee is currently a member of the following international and national committees: Scientific Council – Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD), France; The New York Academy of Sciences/Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science Board; International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Board of Trustees; Sight and Life Foundation Board; Co-Chair of Independent Expert Group for Global Nutrition Report; Advisor to the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Movement Capacity Strengthening Initiative; Board of Trustees for the Micronutrient Forum; Founding member of the Society for Implementation Science in Nutrition (SISN); Scientific Director of ILSI South East Asia Region; Advisory Panel for Nutrition Association of Thailand; Ajinomoto Foundation/Thailand Board. Her research interests include micronutrient assessment, bioavailability and metabolism; efficacy of food-based interventions to address micronutrient deficiencies; maternal and child nutrition policy and program implementation.

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Cynthia Rosenzweig, NASA

Dr Cynthia Rosenzweig is a Senior Research Scientist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the co-located Columbia University Earth Institute’s Center for Climate Systems Research. She is also a Professor in the Department of Environmental Science at Barnard College. At NASA GISS, she heads the Climate Impacts Group whose mission is to investigate the interactions of climate (both variability and change) on systems and sectors important to human well-being. Dr Rosenzweig is the co-founder and a member of the Executive Committee of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), a globally integrated transdisciplinary study of climate impacts on the agricultural sector at national and global levels, including the participation of over 850 leading researchers from developed and developing nations. She is now spearheading the AgMIP-coordinated global and regional assessments of effects of climate change on the food system, including effects on nutrition, for contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) and other major assessments.

A recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship, Dr Rosenzweig has developed new methods of detection and attribution of observed changes in physical and biological systems to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and pioneered research on the impacts of and adaptation to climate change and climate variability. She has developed methodologies for the integrated assessment of the climatic and physiological effects of increased CO2 and SO2 on regional, national, and global agricultural production and food security. She has forged scientific knowledge on the role of agriculture in land use and land cover change and advanced critical exploration of teleconnections between the El Niño Southern Oscillation and agriculture on regional and global scales. She has championed innovative research and instituted knowledge networks on global environmental change and urban systems and developed groundbreaking biological and hydrological land-surface processes for global circulation models (GCMs), used in GISS GCM contributions to the IPCC.

Dr Rosenzweig is Coordinating Lead Author on the Food Security Chapter for the IPCC Special Report on Climate Change and Land. She was also Coordinating Lead Author on observed climate change impacts for the IPCC Working Group II Fourth Assessment Report and is Co-Chair of the New York City Panel on Climate Change, a body of experts convened by the Mayor to advise the city on adaptation and resilience. Further, she has led the effort to explore and quantify anthropogenic and climate change effects on the urban environment. She co-led the Metropolitan East Coast Regional Assessment of the US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, sponsored by the US Global Change Research Program. She is also a lead editor on the Urban Climate Change Research Network Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities. She is now strategising linkages in rural and urban agriculture and food. She was named as one of Nature’s “Ten People Who Mattered in 2012”.

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Carmel Dolan, Emergency Nutrition Network

Carmel has been working in the nutrition sector since the 1980s, having established large-scale treatment and prevention programmes amongst the refugee populations in Sudan during the Ethiopian famine of 1983–1985. After studying Nutrition at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, she worked for more than 6 years for the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) in Tanzania designing and overseeing the implementation of a multi-sectoral and integrated development programme for tackling maternal and child undernutrition.

Carmel went on to establish a specialist consultancy group and, as a Senior Partner, worked in numerous settings supporting national nutrition policy and strategy development, and undertaking large scale nutrition progamme evaluations and reviews. After a period as the interim Coordinator at the Global Nutrition Cluster, she became a Technical Director at the UK-based Emergency Nutrition Network (ENN) in 2011.

Carmel’s technical areas of focus at ENN include co-coordinating work on the relationship between wasting and stunting, leading work on wasting prevention, co-working on ENN’s nutrition resilience and humanitarian-development nexus research, and involvement in ENN’s work on stunting in protracted contexts. She co-authors a number of publications, ENN policy and programme briefing notes and narrative reviews and helps facilitate ENN’s technical events.

Carmel established and co-edits the ENN publication Nutrition Exchange, which aims to capture and disseminate lessons learnt from nutrition programming from the national level. She also co-leads on ENN’s five year knowledge management work for the SUN Movement focused on fragile and conflict affected states. Carmel has been a long-standing ENN representative for the Global Nutrition Cluster and will soon complete a two year tenure as a Strategic Advisor. She is closely involved in shaping ENN’s strategic direction to help ensure its added value in the broader nutrition sector.

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Camila Corvalán, University of Chile

Camila is a medical doctor and epidemiologist trained in nutrition. Her primary interest is human growth and development and the early prevention of obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). Camilla coordinates the Center for Research in Food Environments and Nutrition-Related Chronic Diseases (CIAPEC) at the Public Health Unit of the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) of the University of Chile.

CIAPEC runs longitudinal studies during key periods of life (pregnancy/infancy, preschool/adiposity rebound, and adolescence/puberty), with the aim of better understanding the emergence of nutrition-related chronic diseases such as obesity, metabolic diseases, and breast cancer in the context of a post-transitional country. CIAPEC is also interested in how to translate epidemiological information into public policies and programs. It coordinates the Chilean Food Environment Observatory, capturing annual information on a series of aspects of the food environment such as food prices, food composition and food marketing. CIAPEC is also in charge of running the evaluation of a series of policies implemented in the last few years in Chile to counteract the obesity and NCDs epidemic.

Camila is also advisor for several governmental agencies involved in infant policies such as the Nutrition department of the Ministry of Health, the National Nursery School program, and the National School Board program.

View Camila Corvalán's Declaration of Interests

Ashkan Afshin, University of Washington

Ashkan Afshin, MD, MPH, MSc, ScD, is an Assistant Professor of Global Health at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington. Dr Afshin leads the Global Burden of Disease Study Nutrition Group and supervises the effort to estimate the disease burden attributable to dietary risk factors and obesity in 195 countries.

Prior to joining IHME, Dr Afshin completed a postdoctoral fellowship in Epidemiology at Tufts University's Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy. He was also a postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, where he focused on nutrition, chronic disease, and dietary policy. He is a physician and epidemiologist with formal training and experience in health policy, population health, decision sciences, public health informatics, and health economics.

Dr Afshin earned an MD from Tehran University of Medical Sciences, an MPH from Johns Hopkins University, and an MSc in Health Policy and a dual ScD in Epidemiology and Global Health and Population from Harvard University.

View Ashkan Afshin's Declaration of Interests