Nutrition for Growth (N4G) commitment
1. Increase government expenditure on nutrition to reach the estimated additional US$30 per child under 5 required.
2. Progressively match additional cooperating partner’s resources through new and existing nutrition budget lines.
3. Increase financial contributions by at least 20% annually for the next 10 years.
In 2020, Zambia has made a transition from Activity Based Budgeting (ABB) to Output Based Budgeting, based on the 2019 ABB analysis; progress was as below:
1. Government expenditure was about US$2 per child under 5 required, far below the US$30 per child under 5 required (meaning the country is off track on this commitment).
2. Government did not progressively match additional donor funding to specific nutrition budget lines. In 2019, donors spent significantly more on nutrition-specific budget lines (management of malnutrition, infant and young child feeding, growth monitoring and promotion, micronutrient programme and procurement of nutrition support commodities) that amounted to US$6 million compared to Government expenditure of US$300,000 on the same budget lines.
3. Annual financial increases have been increasing at an average of 10% below the targeted 20% annually for the next 10 years.
Fewer than half of the individual commitment components are assessed to be on course
Reducing chronic undernutrition by 50% in the next 10 years.
The recent Zambia Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS) of 2018 suggests a gradual, yet consistent reduction in nutritional problems in children in Zambia. A comparison of data on key anthropometric measures in the 2013-2014 and the latest 2018 ZDHS shows that all three nutritional status indices (stunting, wasting, and underweight) have improved in the last 5 years. In this period, stunting decreased from 40% to 35%, wasting decreased from 6% to 4%, and the proportion of underweight children decreased from 15% to 12%. The proportion of overweight children (weight-for-height above +2 standard deviations) remained relatively stable from 2013-2014 to 2018 (6% and 5%, respectively). Zambia has managed to reduce malnutrition by 12.5%, from 40.1% in 2013-2014 to 35% in 2018.
Assuming a linear rate of reduction, the stunting prevalence in 2018 (35%) is greater than the required prevalence by this stage (30%) to remain on course with the target of a 50% reduction (20 percentage points) over 10 years.
1. Resolve the human resource and financial gaps in the five key line ministries.
2. Strengthen the governance and coordination mechanisms by establishing direct oversight of progress toward agreed national targets and strengthening the line ministries involved particularly to deliver at community level.
3. Strengthen the functioning and accountability of the National Food and Nutrition Commission of Zambia to adequately coordinate across the key sectors.
1. Provincial and District Nutrition Coordinators have been recruited under the National Food and Nutrition Commission to coordinate the multisector response to nutrition during third quarter 2020 as a way of bridging the human resource gap in the country. Additionally, 48 Nutrition Coordinators are being attached to the Commission to support the multisector nutrition response. New structures for nutrition are being created in the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and Community Development.
2. Various oversity and coordination structures exit at national and subnational levels, and these include: Special Committee of Permanent Secretaries on Nutrition; National Multistakeholder Platform (MSP); Provincial Nutrition Coordinating Committees; District Nutrition Coordinating Committee; Ward Nutrition Coordinating Committee; Community Care Groups/Farmer Groups.
3. The Revised Food and Nutrition Commission Act passed its second reading in Parliament in June 2020. The Bill will strengthen the National Food and Nutrition Commission.
At least half of the individual commitment components are assessed to be on course
Progressively encourage the involvement of the private sector to enable access to affordable and appropriate nutritious foods to mothers, children, and other vulnerable groups.
The private sector is increasingly been involved through the Scaling Up Nutrition Business Network that has been coordinating the private sector's involvement in nutrition through the Good Food Logo and the Health Diet Campaign. The process is now underway to transition the coordination of the Business Network from the World Food Programme to the Ministry of Commerce Trade and Industry. The action is aimed at ensuring strengthened governments role in coordinating and providing incentives to the private sector for nutrition.
Reported progress shows that private sector involvement is ongoing