Country Nutrition Profiles

Country Nutrition Profiles capture the burden of malnutrition at the global, regional, subregional and country level.

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Global overview

Malnutrition burden

Throughout the world, there has been some progress towards achieving global nutrition targets.

A total of 41 countries are on course to meet the global target for under-5 overweight, 40 countries are on course for under-5 wasting and 33 countries are on course for infant exclusive breastfeeding. In total, 31 countries are on course for under-5 stunting and 26 countries are on course for female diabetes. Meanwhile, 12 countries are on course for low birth weight and 8 countries are on course for male diabetes. However, not a single country in the world is on course for the targets: anaemia in women of reproductive age, male obesity and female obesity.

The world experiences a significant malnutrition burden among its under-5 population. The average global prevalence of overweight in the under-5 population is 5.9% and the prevalence of stunting is 21.9%. The prevalence of wasting in the under-5 population is 7.3%. A total of 41.2% of infants under 6 months are exclusively breastfed, while the world's average low birth weight prevalence is 14.6%. The adult population also faces a malnutrition burden. An average of 32.8% of women of reproductive age have anaemia, and 9% of adult men have diabetes, compared to 7.9% of women. Meanwhile, 14.7% of women and 10.5% of men are obese.

Sources: UNICEF global databases Infant and Young Child Feeding, UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group: Joint child malnutrition estimates, UNICEF/WHO Low birthweight estimates, NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, WHO Global Health Observatory.

Notes: Data on the adult indicators are based on modelled estimates.

Progress against global nutrition targets 2018

Under-five stunting

Under-five stunting

31 On course

45 Off course

118 No data

Under-five wasting

Under-five wasting

40 On course

39 Off course

115 No data

Under-five overweight

Under-five overweight

41 On course

31 Off course

122 No data

Low birthweight

Low birthweight

12 On course

134 Off course

48 No data

Exclusive breastfeeding

Exclusive breastfeeding

33 On course

38 Off course

123 No data

Adult female obesity

Adult female obesity

0 On course

178 Off course

16 No data

Adult male obesity

Adult male obesity

0 On course

180 Off course

14 No data

Adult female diabetes

Adult female diabetes

26 On course

164 Off course

4 No data

Adult male diabetes

Adult male diabetes

8 On course

182 Off course

4 No data

WRA anaemia

WRA anaemia

0 On course

187 Off course

7 No data

Sources: UNICEF global databases Infant and Young Child Feeding, UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group: Joint child malnutrition estimates, NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, WHO Global Health Observatory and Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.

Notes: WRA = Women of a reproductive age; NA = not applicable. The methodologies for tracking differ between targets. Data on the adult indicators are based on modelled estimates.

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Child (under-five) nutrition status

Coexistence of wasting, stunting and overweight

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Sources: UNICEF, Division of Data Research and Policy (2019). UNICEF Global Databases: Overlapping Stunting, Wasting and Overweight, January 2019, New York.

Notes: Percentage of children under-five years of age who experience different and overlapping forms of malnutrition. Based on population weighted means of 111 countries.

Low birth weight

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Source: UNICEF/WHO Low birthweight estimates, 2019 edition.

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Child (under-five) nutrition status over time

Wasting by gender

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Stunting by gender

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Overweight by gender

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Wasting by location

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Stunting by location

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Overweight by location

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Wasting by income

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Stunting by income

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Overweight by income

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Wasting by mother's education

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Stunting by mother's education

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Overweight by mother's education

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Wasting by age

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Stunting by age

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Overweight by age

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Sources: UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group: Joint child malnutrition estimates.

Notes: Global trends (grey line in charts) refer to estimates from UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group: Joint child malnutrition estimates. Disaggregated data (coloured lines/bars in charts) is based on population weighted means. Estimates are presented only where available data represents at least 50% of the regional population. Based on population weighted means of between 83 and 110 countries.

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Infant and young child feeding over time

Exclusive breastfeeding by gender

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Continued breastfeeding at 1 year by gender

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Minimum acceptable diet by gender

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Intro. to solid, semi-solid, soft foods by gender

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Exclusive breastfeeding by location

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Continued breastfeeding at 1 year by location

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Minimum acceptable diet by location

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Intro. to solid, semi-solid, soft foods by location

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Exclusive breastfeeding by income

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Continued breastfeeding at 1 year by income

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Minimum acceptable diet by income

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Intro. to solid, semi-solid, soft foods by income

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Exclusive breastfeeding by mother's education

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Continued breastfeeding at 1 year by mother's education

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Minimum acceptable diet by mother's education

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Intro. to solid, semi-solid, soft foods by mother's education

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Exclusive breastfeeding by age

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Continued breastfeeding at 1 year by age

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Minimum acceptable diet by age

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Intro. to solid, semi-solid, soft foods by age

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Sources: UNICEF, Division of Data Research and Policy (2019). Global UNICEF Global Databases: Infant and Young Child Feeding, New York, May 2019.

Notes: Global trends (grey line in charts) refer to estimates from UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group: Joint child malnutrition estimates. Disaggregated data (coloured lines/bars in charts) is based on population weighted means. Estimates are presented only where available data represents at least 50% of the regional population. Based on population weighted means of between 65 and 97 countries.

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Infant and young child feeding

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Sources: UNICEF, Division of Data Research and Policy (2019). Global UNICEF Global Databases: Infant and Young Child Feeding: Exclusive breastfeeding, Predominant breastfeeding, New York, May 2019.

Notes: Based on population weighted means of between 56 and 97 countries.

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Child and adolescent (aged 5-19) nutrition status

Underweight by gender

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Sources: NCD Risk Factor Collaboration.

Overweight by gender

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Obesity by gender

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Adult nutrition status

Diabetes by gender

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Sources: NCD Risk Factor Collaboration.

Overweight by gender

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Obesity by gender

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Raised blood pressure by gender

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Sources: NCD Risk Factor Collaboration.

Anaemia in WRA

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Source: WHO Global Health Observatory.

Notes: WRA = women of reproductive age.

Salt intake (grams per day)

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Source: Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.

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Dietary needs

Consumption of food groups and components, 2016

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Sources: Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.

Notes: TMREL = theoretical minimum risk of exposure level. Men and women aged 25 and older.

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Intervention coverage

Coverage/practice indicator Total (%) Boy (%) Girl (%) Year
Children 0-59 months with diarrhoea who received zinc treatment No data No data No data No data
Children 6-59 months who received vitamin A supplements in last 6 months No data No data No data No data
Children 6-59 months given iron supplements in past 7 days No data No data No data No data
Women with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey who received iron tablets or syrup during antenatal care No data NA NA No data
Household consumption of any iodised salt No data NA NA No data

Notes: NA = not applicable. Data is compiled using STATcompiler and taken from country Demographic and Health Surveys for 2005-2018.

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Determinants

Undernourishment

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Source: FAOSTAT 2018.

Food supply

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Source: FAOSTAT 2018.

Gender-related determinants

Early childbearing births by age 18 (%)1 NA NA
Gender Inequality Index (score*)2 NA NA
Gender Inequality Index (country rank)2 NA NA

Sources: 1 UNICEF 2018; 2 UNDP 2018.

Notes: *0 = low inequality, 1 = high inequality.

Female secondary education enrolment (net, % population)

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Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2018.

Drinking water coverage (% population)

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Source: WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme 2019.

Notes: Based on population weighted means of between 179 and 194 countries.

Sanitation coverage (% population)

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Source: WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme 2019.

Notes: Based on population weighted means of between 86 and 194 countries.

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Resources, policies and targets

Development assistance

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Sources: Development Initiatives based on OECD Development Assistance Commitee (DAC) Creditor Reporting System (CRS).

Notes: ODA = official development assistance. Amounts based on gross ODA disbursements, constant 2017 prices. Figure includes ODA grants and loans, but excludes other official flows and private grants.

National policies

Mandatory legislation for salt iodisation 115/194
Sugar-sweetened beverage tax 73/194
Food-based dietary guidelines 92/194
Policy to reduce salt consumption 91/194
Operational policy, strategy or action plan to reduce unhealthy diet related to NCDs 152/194
Operational, multisectoral national NCD policy, strategy or action plan 98/194
Operational policy, strategy or action plan for diabetes 148/194
Policy to reduce the impact on children of marketing of foods and beverages high in saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, free sugars or salt 58/194
Policy to limit saturated fatty acids and virtually eliminate industrially produced trans-fats 68/194

Sources: Global Fortification Data Exchange 2018; Sugar-sweetened data prepared using data from the NOURISHING database, academic references and market reports; FAO 2018; WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA), 2nd Global Nutrition Policy Review, WHO Global Health Observatory.

Notes: Value refers to the number of countries with policy. NA = not applicable; NCD = non-communicable disease.

Targets included in national (nutrition or other) plan

Stunting
111/194
Anaemia
87/194
Low birth weight
100/194
Child overweight
139/194
Exclusive breastfeeding
127/194
Wasting
101/194
Salt intake
108/194
Overweight adults and adolescents
160/194
Multisectoral comprehensive nutrition plan
100/194

Sources: WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA), 2nd Global Nutrition Policy Review.

Notes: Value refers to the number of countries with target.

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Economics and demography

Poverty rates (%) and GDP (PPP$)

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Sources: World Bank 2019, IMF World Economic Outlook Database 2019.

Notes: PPP = purchasing power parity. Based on population weighted means of 186 countries.

Under-five mortality (per 1,000 live births)

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Source: UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation 2018.

Government revenues ($m)

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Sources: IMF Article IV staff reports (country specific) and IMF World Economic Outlook Database (April 2019).

Income inequality

Gini index score1 Gini index rank2 Year
NA NA NA

Sources: World Bank 2019.

Notes: 1 0 = perfect equality, 100 = perfect inequality.2 Countries are ranked from most equal (1) to most unequal (159).

Population

Population (thousands) 7,594,270 2018
Under-five population (thousands) 677,369 2019
Rural (%) 45 2018
>65 years (thousands) 702,933 2019

Sources: World Bank 2019, UN Population Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs 2019.

Population density of health workers per 1,000 people

Physicians 1.49 2013
Nurses and midwives 3.14 2013
Community health workers 0.51 2016

Sources: WHO's Global Health Workforce Statistics, OECD, supplemented by country data.

Notes: Based on population weighted means of 64 countries.