Country Nutrition Profiles

Explore the latest data on nutrition at global, regional and country level, with interactive charts that let you see what progress your country has made towards the global nutrition targets.

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Belize

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The burden of malnutrition at a glance

Belize is 'on course' to meet three of the global nutrition targets for which there was sufficient data to assess progress.

Belize is 'on course' to meet three targets for maternal, infant and young child nutrition (MIYCN). No progress has been made towards achieving the target of reducing anaemia among women of reproductive age, with 20.5% of women aged 15 to 49 years now affected. Meanwhile, there has also been no progress towards achieving the low birth weight target, with 8.6% of infants having a low weight at birth. Belize is 'on course' for the exclusive breastfeeding target, with 33.2% of infants aged 0 to 5 months exclusively breastfed. Belize has made some progress towards achieving the target for stunting, but 15.0% of children under 5 years of age are still affected. Belize is 'on course' for the target for wasting, but 1.8% of children under 5 years of age are still affected. The prevalence of overweight children under 5 years of age is 7.3% and Belize is 'on course' to prevent the figure from increasing.

Belize has shown limited progress towards achieving the diet-related non-communicable disease (NCD) targets. The country has shown no progress towards achieving the target for obesity, with an estimated 34.6% of adult (aged 18 years and over) women and 19.0% of adult men living with obesity. Belize's obesity prevalence is higher than the regional average of 30.7% for women but is lower than the regional average of 22.8% for men. At the same time, diabetes is estimated to affect 17.4% of adult women and 11.3% of adult men.

Progress towards the global nutrition targets

Childhood stunting

Childhood stunting

Some progress
Anaemia

Anaemia

No progress or worsening
Low birth weight

Low birth weight

No progress or worsening
Childhood overweight

Childhood overweight

On course
Exclusive breastfeeding

Exclusive breastfeeding

On course
Childhood wasting

Childhood wasting

On course
Sodium intake, women and men

Sodium intake, women and men

Off course
Raised blood pressure, women

Raised blood pressure, women

Off course
Raised blood pressure, men

Raised blood pressure, men

Off course
Obesity, women

Obesity, women

Off course
Obesity, men

Obesity, men

Off course
Diabetes, women

Diabetes, women

Off course
Diabetes, men

Diabetes, men

Off course

Source: WHO. Global Health Observatory Data Repository/World Health Statistics. Available at: https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/indicators. Accessed 2 September 2021; UNICEF/WHO. Low birthweight estimates; published online 2019. Available at: https://data.unicef.org/topic/nutrition/low-birthweight. Accessed 24 August 2021; UNICEF. Global databases: Infant and young child feeding; published online July 2020. Available at: http://data.unicef.org/nutrition/iycf. Accessed 24 August 2021; UNICEF/WHO/World Bank. Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Stunting, Wasting and Overweight; published online July 2020. Available at: https://data.unicef.org/resources/dataset/malnutrition-data. Accessed 31 August 2021; NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. 2017. Available at: http://ncdrisc.org/data-downloads.html. Accessed 24 August 2021; Tufts University. Global Dietary Database; published online 2019. Available at: https://www.globaldietarydatabase.org/data-download. Accessed 6 September 2021.

Notes: Progress towards the maternal, infant and young child nutrition (MIYCN) and diet-related non-communicable disease (NCD) global nutrition targets is classified as ‘on course’ if the target is met, ‘some progress' or ‘no progress or worsening’. MIYCN targets include anaemia among women of reproductive age (15–49 years), infants with low birthweight, exclusive breastfeeding among infants under 6 months of age, and childhood stunting, wasting and overweight. NCD targets include adult obesity and diabetes, raised blood pressure and sodium intake. Obesity and diabetes are based on age-standardised modelled estimates for adults aged 18 years and older, using the WHO standard population; they are reported by sex due to limitations in data availability. Anaemia and low birthweight are also based on modelled estimates. The specific targets set are: 40% reduction in the number of children under 5 years of age who are stunted; 50% reduction of anaemia in women of reproductive age; 30% reduction in low birth weight; no increase in childhood overweight; increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months to at least 50%; reduce and maintain childhood wasting to less than 5%; 30% relative reduction in the mean population intake of salt/sodium by 2025; 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of raised blood pressure or contain the prevalence of raised blood pressure, according to national circumstances; and halt the rise in obesity and diabetes. The methodologies for tracking progress differ across targets. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

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Diet

Infant and young child feeding

Prevalence of infant and young child feeding indicators

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Source: UNICEF. Global databases: Infant and young child feeding. Published online July 2020. Available at: http://data.unicef.org/nutrition/iycf. Accessed 24 August 2021.

Notes: Prevalence (%) estimates are presented for infants and young children aged 0–23 months (age varies by indicator). Location is classified as ‘urban’ or ‘rural’ (as defined in the survey). Education refers to the educational level of the mother and is classified as ‘none or primary’ or ‘secondary or higher’. Wealth is asset-based wealth scores at the household level, classified as quintiles: ‘lowest’, ‘second lowest’, ‘middle’, ‘second highest’ and ‘highest’. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Dietary intakes

Dietary intakes of key foods and nutrients in adults aged 20 years and over compared against minimum and maximum targets (where ideal intake is within the shaded area)

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Source: Tufts University. Global Dietary Database. Published online 2019. Available at: https://www.globaldietarydatabase.org/data-download. Accessed 6 September 2021.

Notes: Intakes are reported in grams per day (g/d) for all dietary factors. Intakes are based on modelled estimates for adults aged 25 years and older. The dietary factors have been selected as those diet components that have a statistically significant relationship with at least one disease endpoint that can be generalisable to all populations. Recommended intake targets were determined by the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. This includes minimum recommended intakes of health promoting food groups (fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and wholegrains) and maximum recommended intakes of food groups with detrimental health and/or environmental impacts (red meat, dairy, and fish). Ideal intake for each food is within the shaded area of the graph.

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Nutrition strategies and financing

National nutrition policies

Implemented national food and NCD policies

Food-based dietary guidelines
Yes
Legislation for mandatory salt iodisation
Yes
Sugar-sweetened beverage tax
Yes
Policy to reduce salt/sodium consumption
No
Policy to limit saturated fatty acid intake
No
Policy to eliminate industrially produced trans fatty acids
No
Policy to reduce the impact of marketing of foods and beverages high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars, or salt on children
No
Operational policy, strategy, or action plan to reduce unhealthy diet related to non-communicable diseases
Yes
Operational, multisectoral policy, strategy or action plan for non-communicable diseases
Yes
Operational policy, strategy or action plan for diabetes
Yes

Source: Global Fortification Data Exchange. Available at: https://fortificationdata.org/interactive-map-fortification-legislation. Accessed 31 August 2021; Global Fortification Data Exchange. Available at: https://fortificationdata.org/interactive-map-fortification-legislation. Accessed 24 August 2021; WHO. Global Health Observatory Data Repository. Available at: https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/indicators. Accessed 2 September 2021.

Notes: Country with food-based dietary guidelines in 2018, sugar-sweetened beverage tax in 2017 and all other policies in 2019. 'Policy' is defined as a specific official decision or set of decisions designed to carry out a course of action endorsed by a political body, including a set of goals, priorities and main directions for attaining these goals, including legislation and product reformulation mandates. 'Strategy' is defined as a long-term plan designed to achieve a particular goal. Action plan is defined as a scheme or course of action, which may correspond to a policy or strategy, with defined activities indicating who does what, when, how and with what resources to accomplish an objective. ‘Operational’ describes a policy, strategy or plan of action being used and implemented in the country, with resources and funding available to implement it. ‘Multisectoral’ applies to a policy, strategy or plan of action that involves different sectors (e.g., health, agriculture, education, finance). See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

National policy targets

Inclusion of targets related to the global nutrition targets in national policies

Reduce anaemia among women
No
Reduce number of infants born with low birth weight
Yes
Increase prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants 0–5 months
Yes
Reduce childhood stunting
Yes
Reduce childhood wasting
Yes
Reduce childhood overweight
Yes
Reduce adolescent and adult overweight
Yes
Reduce salt/sodium intake
No
Reduce raised blood pressure prevalence
Yes
Reduce blood sugar levels/diabetes prevalence
Yes
Multisectoral comprehensive nutrition plan
Yes

Source: WHO GINA. 2nd Global Nutrition Policy Review. 2016–2017.

Notes: Target included in national policies in 2017. Any national government-implemented policy, strategy or plan relevant to improving nutrition and promoting healthy diet was considered for 194 countries. Legislation, codes, regulations, protocols and guidelines, as well as non-governmental policies, were excluded. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Nutrition intervention coverage

Population coverage of key supplementation and fortification interventions

Coverage/practice indicator Total (%) Boy (%) Girl (%) Year
Children aged 0–59 months with diarrhoea in the past two weeks preceding the survey who received zinc treatment 10 11 8 2016
Children aged 6–59 months who received two high-dose vitamin A supplements in a calendar year No data No data No data No data
Children aged 6–59 months given iron supplements in the seven days preceding the survey No data No data No data No data
Women with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey who received iron tablets or syrup during antenatal care No data NA NA No data
Households consuming any iodised salt 85 NA NA 2015

Source: UNICEF. Global databases: Child health. Published online August 2020. Available at: https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-health/diarrhoeal-disease. Accessed 24 August 2021; UNICEF. Global databases: Child health. Published online March 2020. Available at: https://data.unicef.org/resources/dataset/vitamin-supplementation. Accessed 31 August 2021; STATcompiler. The DHS Program. Available at: www.statcompiler.com. Accessed 31 August 2021; UNICEF. Global databases: Iodized salt. Published online June 2019. Available at: https://data.unicef.org/topic/nutrition/iodine. Accessed 24 August 2021.

Notes: Estimates are reported as percentages (%). See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Official development assistance (ODA)

Allocation of ODA for nutrition

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Source: Global Nutrition Report based on OECD DAC CRS. 2019.

Notes: Gross official development assistance (ODA) received or disbursed for basic nutrition (CRS code: 12240) reported in US$ millions (constant 2018 prices) and as percentage (%) of the total ODA received/disbursed. Estimates include ODA grants and loans, but excludes other official flows and private grants. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

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Social determinants of nutrition

Population composition

Total population, thousands 398
Under-5 population, thousands 39
Over-65 population, thousands 20
Rural population, % 54

Source: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Population Prospects. 2019. Available at: https://population.un.org/wpp/Download/Standard/Population. Accessed: 31 August 2021.

Notes: Estimates are reported in thousands for total population, population group aged under 5 years, population group aged 65 years and over and as percentage (%) for population living in rural areas. All estimates are based on modelled estimates for 2020. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Prevalence of undernourishment

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Source: FAO Statistics Division. Food Security/Suite of Food Security Indicators. 2019. Available at: http://www.fao.org/sustainable-development-goals/indicators/211/en. Accessed 31 August 2021.

Notes: Prevalence (%) is calculated from three-year averages of modelled estimates, with the associated year being the middle year of those three (e.g., 2018 estimate is the average of 2017–2019). The prevalence of undernourishment is defined as the proportion of the population whose habitual food consumption is insufficient to provide the dietary energy levels required to maintain a normal active and healthy life. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Under-5 mortality rate per 1,000 live births

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Source: UNICEF. Global databases: Under-five mortality. Published online September 2020. Available at: http://data.unicef.org/child-mortality/under-five. Accessed 31 August 2021.

Notes: Number of deaths of children aged 0–59 months per 1,000 live births, based on modelled estimates up to 2019. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Population density of health workers per 1,000 people

Type Number Year
Medical doctors 1.12 2017
Nurses and midwives 2.34 2018
Community health workers 0.5 2009

Source: World Bank. Global Health Workforce Statistics. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator. Accessed 31 August 2021.

Notes: Number of health workers per 1,000 people, based on modelled estimates. Health worker definition and training vary across countries and human resources tend to be concentrated in urban areas, so inferences may be affected. Medical doctors include generalist and specialist medical doctors. Nurses and midwives include professional, auxiliary and enrolled nurses and midwives, as well as other associated personnel, e.g. dental and primary care nurses. Community health workers include various types of community health aides, many with country-specific occupational titles such as community health officers, community health-education workers, family health workers, lady health visitors and health extension package workers. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Source of drinking water

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Source: WHO/UNICEF. Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. 2020. Available at: https://washdata.org/data. Accessed 2 September 2021.

Notes: Percentage (%) of population using each drinking water source, based on modelled estimates up to 2020. ‘Safely managed’ refers to using an improved (i.e. by design and construction has the potential to deliver safe water) drinking water source located on the premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. ‘Basic’ refers to using an improved source, for which water collection time is not more than 30 minutes for a round trip, including queuing. ‘Limited’ refers to an improved source for which water collection time exceeds 30 minutes for a round trip including queuing. ‘Unimproved’ refers to an unprotected dug well or unprotected spring. ‘Surface water’ refers to drinking water directly from a river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal or irrigation canal. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Type of sanitation facility

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Source: WHO/UNICEF. Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. 2020. Available at: https://washdata.org/data. Accessed 2 September 2021.

Notes: Percentage (%) of population using different types of sanitation facilities, based on modelled estimates up to 2020. ‘Safely managed’ refers to using improved (i.e. designed to hygienically separate excreta from human contact) sanitation facilities not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed in situ or transported and treated off-site. ‘Basic’ refers to using improved facilities not shared with other households. ‘Limited’ refers to using improved facilities shared between two or more households. ‘Unimproved’ refers to using pit latrines without a slab or platform, hanging latrines or bucket latrines. ‘Open defecation’ refers to disposal of human faeces in fields, forests, bushes, open bodies of water, beaches and other open spaces or with solid waste. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita

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Source: International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook database. Published online October 2021. Available at: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2021/October. Accessed 12 November 2021

Notes: Annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP) in constant 2017 international dollars. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Population living below the poverty line

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Source: World Bank. PovcalNet: an online analysis tool for global poverty monitoring. 2020. Available at: http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/home.aspx. Accessed 31 August 2021.

Notes: Percentage (%) of population living on less than US$1.90 or less than US$3.20 per day, based on 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP), up to 2020. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Country income inequality index

Gini index score Gini index rank Year
No data No data No data

Gender-related determinants

Early childbearing 17 2016
Gender Inequality Index (score) 0.41 2019
Gender Inequality Index (country rank) 97/162 2019

Source: UNICEF. Global databases: Maternal and Newborn Health Coverage. Published online August 2020. Available at: http://data.unicef.org/maternal-health/delivery-care. Accessed 2 September 2021; UN Development Programme. Human Development Report. Gender Inequality Index. Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/indicators/68606#. Accessed 24 August 2021.

Notes: Early childbearing refers to the percentage (%) of women aged 20–24 years who gave birth before the age of 18. The Gender Inequality Index (GII) measures: gender inequalities in reproductive health, measured by maternal mortality ratio and adolescent birth rates; empowerment, measured by proportion of parliamentary seats occupied by women and proportion of women and men aged 25 years and older with at least some secondary education; and economic status, expressed as labour market participation and measured by labour force participation rate of female and male populations aged 15 years and older. GII ranges from 0 (women and men fare equally) to 1 (one gender fares as poorly as possible in all measured dimensions). Countries are ranked from most equal (1) to most unequal (162). See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

Prevalence of female secondary school enrolment

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Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 2019. Available at: http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Accessed 24 August 2021.

Notes: Percentage (net, %) estimates refer to the ratio of female children of official school age enrolled in secondary school to the population of the corresponding official school age. See Methodology for more information on the indicators.

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Environmental impacts

Environmental pressure from the food system

Pressure from the food system on environmental factors as a percentage of total pressure

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Source: New analysis based on estimates of food demand from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (FAO. Food Balance Sheets: A Handbook. Rome, Italy: FAO, 2001) and a database of country- and food group-specific environmental footprints (Springmann et al. Nature 2018; 562: 519–25; Poore & Nemecek. Science 2018; 360: 987–92).

Notes: Data on food demand for each country from FAO was paired with a comprehensive database of environmental footprints, differentiated by country, food group, and environmental impact. The footprints take into account all food production, including inputs such as fertilisers and feed, transport, and processing, e.g., of oil seeds to oils and sugar crops to sugars.

Food system impact on planetary boundaries

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Source: New analysis based on estimates of food demand from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (FAO. Food Balance Sheets: A Handbook. Rome, Italy: FAO, 2001) and a database of country- and food group-specific environmental footprints (Springmann et al. Nature 2018; 562: 519–25; Poore & Nemecek. Science 2018; 360: 987–92). The target values for sustainable food production are in line with Sustainable Development Goals specified by and adapted from the EAT-Lancet Commission (Willett et al.The Lancet 2019; 393: 447–92.; Springmann et al. The British Medical Journal 2020; 370: 2322).

Notes: Planetary boundaries define the threshold related to global environmental processes beyond which humanity should not go. Planetary boundaries align with the targets for sustainable food production as set out by the Sustainable Development Goals. If impacts exceed 100% of the planetary boundary, the dietary pattern of that particular country can be considered unsustainable in light of global environmental targets, and disproportionate in the context of an equitable distribution of environmental resources and mitigation efforts.